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Diabetes Symptoms And Causes

Diabetes
Diabetes


What is diabetes:

Diabetes is a chronic disease that influences your body's function to produce or utilize insulin. Insulin is a hormone which has the responsibility of transporting the energy (also called sugars or glucose) from the food we eat to the cells. Insulin performs as a messenger of the body, which delivers the chemical message to the cell to open and receive the glucose (energy). 

If your body produces negligible insulin or is insulin resistant, a lot of sugar stays in the blood and in return would be catastrophic for kidney and will cause Blood glucose levels to be higher than the usual person. Although diabetic patients have higher Blood glucose levels. 

According to the report of the International Diabetes Federation(IDF), in 2017, an estimated 8.8 percent of the adult population worldwide had diabetes. This figure is estimated to rise to 9.9 percent by the year 2045.




Types of diabetes:

There are mainly three types of diabetes,

1). Type 1 Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas isn’t able to produce insulin for the body to function. Every patient with type 1 diabetes requires an insulin injection. Generally, people with type 1 diabetes are identified during their childhood or at a young age. Approximately of all diabetes cases, 10% is of type 1. 

According to the report by NCBI in 2017, India recorded 1, 00,000 type 1 patients of age under 14 years. And this trend is increasing exponentially around 3-5%/year.

2). Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes happens when the body is not able to produce enough insulin, or when the cells can't utilize insulin legitimately, which is popularly known as “insulin resistance”. Type 2 diabetes is commonly known as "adult-onset diabetes" since it is identified on later part of your life, possibly after the age of 45. As of late, Type 2 diabetes has been analyzed in younger people including kids. Generally, type 2 disease affects people above 45 years. Type 2 diabetes contributes to 90-95% of all diabetes patients.

As per reports, India currently counts for 49% of the world's diabetes load, with an estimated 72 million cases in 2017, a figure anticipated increasing exponentially to 134 million by 2025.

More than 100 million U.S. adults are now living with diabetes or prediabetes, according to a newly released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

3). Gestational diabetes:

Gestational diabetes occurs amid pregnancy and affects around 18 percent of all pregnant women, as indicated by the American Diabetes Association. A few ladies have high amounts of glucose in their blood, and their bodies can't produce enough insulin to transport the majority of the glucose into their cells, bringing about continuously rising levels of glucose.

Symptoms of diabetes:

Diabetes symptoms change depending upon elevation of blood sugar in your body. A few people, especially those with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes(A condition in which blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be type 2 diabetes), may not encounter these symptoms initially but with passage of time they will get to know the symptoms, as type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are commonly detected after the age of 45 years. In the case of type 1 diabetes, symptoms could be seen quickly and can be serious. 

Some of the very usual signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: 

1. Long lasting thirst 

2. The increased urge of urination

3. Exhaustion (tiredness)

4. Blurness in sight

5. Dry mouth and skin rashes

6. Rising hunger

7. Itchy skin

8. Unexplained weight reduction

9. Slow healing wounds 

10. Infections, like gums or skin infection 


Causes of diabetes:

1). Causes of type 1 diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system, the body's inbuilt anti-virus for battling infections, attacks and harms the insulin-creating beta cells of the pancreas. Researchers think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors such as viruses. Still, it's not clear what causes type 1 diabetes. Researchers worldwide are attempting to pinpoint reasons for type 1 diabetes and conceivable ways to avoid or cure type 1 diabetes.

"Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, however, it commonly shows up amid childhood or immaturity." 


2). Causes of type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to 90-95% of all diabetes patients.

a). Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity:

Overweight, Obesity and physical inactivity are considered to be one of the major causes of type 2 diabetes. Additional weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is very much common in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Many doctors approve that Extra belly fat is connected to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and vein infection. 

b). Insulin resistance:

Type 2 diabetes commonly begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells aren't able to use insulin well. Thus, your body needs more insulin to enable glucose to enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up the risen demand. After some time, the pancreas can't make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.

c). Genes and family history:

Similar to type 1 diabetes, certain genes may make you more prone to type 2 diabetes. Genes can also increase the risk of getting type 2 diabetes by increasing the person's capability to gain weight or obese.

"Type 2 diabetes, the more common diabetes type, can occur at any age, however, it's more common with people above 40 years."


3). Causes gestational diabetes:

Researchers accept gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that occurs amid pregnancy is caused by hormonal changes while pregnancy, some other factors considered are genetics and natural factors like infection. 

a). Insulin resistance: 

Hormones secreted by the placenta(an organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy) leads to insulin resistance, which happens in all ladies amid late pregnancy. Most pregnant ladies can create enough insulin to beat insulin resistance, but some can't. Gestational diabetes happens when the pancreas can't make enough insulin. 

b). Excess Weight:

Similarly, as with type 2 diabetes, additional weight is connected to gestational diabetes. Ladies who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they are pregnant. Gaining extra weight while pregnancy may also be a reason.


Complications of diabetes on your body:

The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and the number is still growing very rapidly. Diabetes is a chronic disease which has some complications and negatively affects our healthy body.

1. Risk of stroke: The risk of stroke is around four times higher for diabetes as compared to the nondiabetic patient.

2. Extreme thirst: It is one of the noticeable complications of diabetes.

3. Vision blurs: Damaged blood vessels in the eyes can cause visual obstruction and if not treated would even lead to permanent blindness.

4. Risk of heart disease: High blood pressure and damaged blood vessels put a lot of strain on the heart which can lead to heart disease or even in some cases heart failure.

5. Risk of infection: diabetic patient sare more prone to bacterial, fungal and yeast infections. Feet are most vulnerable to infection while diabetes.

6. High blood pressure: One of the major complications of diabetes is high blood pressure, which leads to heart diseases.

7. Exhaustion: Diabetes affects the functioning of the kidney and pancreas leads to low energy levels and fatigue. 

8. Excessive Urination: Another physical sign of diabetes.

9. Damaged blood vessels: an excess of glucose in the blood lead to a restricted flow of blood in the body leading to different disease and damage to blood vessels.

10. Foot infection: Diabetes increase the risk of corn and calluses(development of thick and hardened skin in the foot or toes), infections etc. The prime reason for these is nerve damage and high blood sugar.

11. Dry, cracked skin: High blood sugar leads to the loss of fluids from the skin leading to dry and cracked skin.

12. Gastroparesis: high blood sugar present in the body while diabetes causes delayed digestion of food. this delay causes heartburn and nausea.


Detection of diabetes or prediabetes:

Doctors generally use three different ways to determine whether a patient is normal, has prediabetes or has diabetes. There are three possible tests:

1). The A1C test:

It provides information about the average levels of blood sugar over the past 3 months. The A1C test measures the quantity of glucose attached with hemoglobin and shows the average blood glucose levels over the past 3 months.

a). If blood sugar is at least 6.5% = It means a person has diabetes.

b). If blood sugar is between 5.7% and 5.99% =  It means a person has 
prediabetes.

c). If blood sugar is less than 5.7% = It means the person is normal(or has no diabetes).

2). The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test:

It is a preferred method for detection of diabetes. The FPG measures patients blood sugar level in their body after fasting for at least 8 hours.

a). If blood sugar is at least 126 mg/dl = It means diabetes.

b). If blood sugar is between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl =It means prediabetes

c). If blood sugar is less than 100 mg/dl = It means normal(or has no diabetes).

3). OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test):

It is an outdated method but is still commonly used for detection of gestational diabetes. The patient has to fast overnight (at least 8 hours). 

a). If blood sugar is almost 200 mg/dl = It means diabetes.

b). If blood sugar is between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl = It means prediabetes.

c). If blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dl =  It means normal(or has no diabetes).

An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has IGT(impaired glucose tolerance, have blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to say that the patient has diabetes).

See Also: Diabetes Treatment


Reference:

1. diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes
2. mayoclinic.org/diabetes
Diabetes Symptoms And Causes Diabetes Symptoms And Causes Reviewed by Piyush Narayan on November 08, 2018 Rating: 5

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